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Imprisoned, disappeared, or hacked to death, because internet

The following is a list of individuals known to have been put in danger by their internet activities.

UPDATES (added from the top):

Ahmad Al Shamri, Saudi Arabia, death sentence about atheism on Twitter. WaPo, &c, &c  Added 4/27/2017.

Sina Dehghan, Iran, “interrogated”, promised to be freed if he signed a confession; after he signed, he was sentenced to death.  Accused of using LINE instant messaging application to make critical comments about Koran and Islam.  In 2015, LINE (WP article) announced that it added end-to-end encryption, however in 2016 was given an ultimatum by Iran ‘to cooperate in censorship or face blocking’. Via JWF.  Added 4/13/2017.

Merzoug Touati, Algerian blogger, imprisoned after an interview with an Israeli official over Skype. From JWF, lots of other sources in French.  added 2/10/2017

Nabeel Rajab, Bahrain, Twitter, president of the Bahrain Center for Human Rights (BCHR), opposes war in Yemen https://www.rt.com/news/372069-activist-rajab-bahrain-released/

Golrokh Ebrahimi Iraee, Iran, Facebook, wrote an unpublished short story about stoning,  JWF, &c. &c. added 12/28/2016

abdelaziz-bouteflika-on-twitter

In 2006, Abdelaziz Bouteflika announced a change in the constitution to allow the president to remain in office indefinitely.

Mohamed Tamalt, Algerian blogger, imprisoned under Algeria’s cybercrime law after a poem on FB about president Abdellaziz Boueflika, died in a coma after a 3 month hunger strike.  JWF. Guardian. Abdelaziz has limited speech and mobility due to health problems and is represented publicly by his deputies. Reported 12/11/2016.

Max Bokayev ( Макс Боқаев ) and Talgat Ayan ( Талғат Аян ) , Kazakhstan, sentenced on November 28, 2016 to 5 years after organizing protests on FB. JWFin Kazakh added 12/04/2016

Souad al-Shammary, سعاد الشمري Saudi Islamic scholar and women’s rights activist, imprisoned at Jiddah’s Briman prison on October 28, 2014 without trial, released January 29, 2015 at the same time Saudi Arabia’s new King Salman granted general amnesty for a large number of prisoners. Co-founded (BBCNews, the Guardian) Free Saudi Liberals Network with Raif Badawi, who is still imprisoned. For some reason this two-year-old story is re-emerging now.  ABCWorld Religion News, short profile on Front Line DefendersThe New Yorker, Middle East Eye, Al-Arabiya (2014), Pravda (in Russian, re-tweeting from AP Nov 2016).  New York Times and WaPo,  (Nov 2016 republished from the AP) arwiki (same person?) Added 11/19/2016.  This is curious, as of 4/18/2017, a number of these articles, including ABC News, Washington Post, and New York Times have been scrubbed.  Mission accomplished? Ah, but it says she threatened to sue Sheik Adel al-Kalbani [link] [link] [link] after Al Kalbani prayed that Suad lose the use of her hand and her eyesight.

Majed Al-Anizi,  ماجد العنزي Saudi YouNow  “يو ناو” video blogger, details and timeline unclear, arrested sometime before Abu Sin, probably October 2016. Saudi Gazette, al bawaba, al Arabiya English. Video of a conversation with an American named Katie went viral on Snapchat السناب شات , raising a very big buzz on social networking sites, especially Twitter (Ar) HuffPo. Added 10/23/2016

Abu Sin, أبوسن screen name of a Saudi Arabian video blogger, who faces three years in prison after appearing in video chats with Californian Christina Crockett @christinac842 Arrested while livestreaming from a car.   Video of arrest: (police car appears at about 7:00)Guardian, Saudi Gazette, and multiple others. Released on bail 10/6/16. Added 10/5/2016.

Nahed Hattar, ناهض حتّر , ناهض حتر Jordanian writer, arrested August 2016 after posting a cartoon to Facebook, killed in Amman on his way to court. BBCNews, Jordan Times, al-Rai and al-Jazeera (Arabic language) , Article 150 & 273 & 278 (Ar), of Jordanian penal code. https://twitter.com/clifferdson/status/779981072545161217 (added 9/25/2016)

Roya Saberinejad Nobakht, Farsi: رویا صابری نژاد نوبخت a British/Iranian, arrested at the airport when she went back to Iran to visit her parents in 2013, imprisoned  in Evin Prison, after she posted on Facebook that Iran was “too Islamic”. JIMAC, Guardian, Jimmy Wales Foundation, Independent, MEN.  Article on Farsi WP.  (Added 8/24/2016).

Scott Richards on FBqambar camp richardsScott Richards, سكوت ريتشاردز , a British/Australian  in Dubai, arrested  after raising money on Facebook for blankets for a refugee camp in Afghanistan where 100 children froze to deathBBC, Time, the Independent, ABC (Australia), the Telegraph, Grunaid.  Richards’ wife is allowed to bring him money once a week so he can buy water.  Refugee camp donations here.  Ar: BBC HuffPo Added August 19, 2016. Released on bail 23/Aug/2016. Charges dropped Sept 2016 https://7days.ae/charity-case-scott-richards-dubai-dropped

Tarek Alghorani - We wish to detain or we want prisoners.jpgTarek Alghorani, Syrian blogger.  In 2008 was sentenced to 7 years after blogging about the president, Bashar al-Assad, tortured in Sednaya Prison, released in 2011. Now lives in Tunis.

Mohamed Cheikh Ould Mkhaitir, محمد الشيخ ولد امخيطير  Mauritania blogger, sentenced to death for an article about Mohammad. H/T: Jimmy Wales Foundation.   Added 4/26/2016

Nazimuddin Samad, নাজিমুদ্দিন সামাদ।  Bangladesh, criticized Islamicism on Facebook, hacked with a machete and shot to death.   The Guardian. #NazimuddinSamadAmnesty International. BBC News. One in a series of attacks. CNN. (Added 4/7/2016)

Alaa Brinji علاء برنجي Saudi journalist, Twitter. BBC News. The IndependentAmnesty International. Under arrest since May 13 May 2014 (Reporters Without Borders) (Added 3/27/2016)

Their Weapons vs Our Weapons - Egypt, 2011 - photo Suzee In The City.jpgEsraa el-Taweel اسراء_الطويل , Egyptian activist and photojournalist. Disappeared, discovered in prison, wrote a letter detailing conditions for women in prison that was smuggled out, then released. Charges included “spreading false news through her social media account”. Prison letters published by her sister on FB at “اسراء الطويل فين – Where is Esraa Eltaweel“. (added 1/28/2016)

Hossein Ronaghi حسین رونقی, Iranian blogger in prison and denied medical treatment. (added 1/26/2016)

Keywan Karimi کیوان کریمی, Iranian film maker. Imprisoned in Iran. Petition from filmmakers. (added 1/26/2016)

Graffiti in Syria - A salute to the freedom of the mediaZahra Kazemi زهرا کاظمی , Canadian-Iranian photojournalist.  She was tortured to death in prison. (added 1/26/2016)

Sattar Beheshti ستار بهشتی was an Iranian blogger who died in prison after posting to Facebook. (added 1/19/2016)

Hossein Ronaghi-Maleki (حسین رونقی), Iranian blogger. His father, Ahmad Ronaghi-Maleki, was sentenced to 4 months in prison after giving interviews about his son. (added 1/19/2016)

Samar_Badawi_with_Hillary_Rodham_Clinton_and_Michelle_Obama_at_2012_IWOC_Award

Samar Badawi accepts the International Women of Courage Award from Michelle Obama and Hillary Clinton in 2012.

Samar Badawi سمر بدوي, Saudi activist for voting and driving rights, sister of imprisoned blogger Raif Badawi, and former wife of Waleed Abulkhair. It is thought she was accused of Tweeting from Waleed Abu al-Khair’s Twitter account. Released the next day, on Jan 13. Added Jan. 12, 2016

Ruqia Hassan  رقية حسن محمد , Syrian journalist from Raqqan who posted to Facebook under the pen name  Nissan Ibrahim نيسان ابراهيم , killed in September 2015 by ISIS. Also NYT. Added 1/6/2016

Vadim Tyumentsev, Вадим Тюменцев 5-year jail term in Russia for posts on YouTube and Vkontakte, Russia’s version of Facebook.myanmar green uniform

Color of Burma’s new army uniforms compared to Aung San Suu Kyi’s longi

Chaw Sandi Tun jailed in Myanmar/Burma after a photo appeared on her Facebook page comparing the color of the new army uniforms to Aung San Suu Kyi’s longi. (She says her FB was hacked, IME not at all surprising to have some external interference to FB in Asia.) H/T JWF. Added 12/31/2015.  [Image on right]

Igor Sychev, Игоря Сычева ethnic Russian blogger from Kazakhstan Казахстан
who moderated an unnamed social networking site that published a poll on whether the region should join Russia. Sentenced to 5 years in jail. H/T JWF. Added 12/31/2015.

Yermek Tachibekov, Ермек Тайчибеков  pro-Russian blogger jailed/on trial in Kazakhstan. Russian WP. Added 12/31/2015.

Hamid Buyabes, Hamid Turki Buyabs  حامد تركي بويابس editor in chief  رئيس تحرير of the Kuwait people’s newspaper جريدة الشعب الكويتية   jailed in Kuwait for comments about Saudi Arabia on Twitter, according to the Arabic Network for Human Rights Information – ANHRI. H/T JWF.  On February 7, 2017, according to ANHRI,  acquitted of the “state security” charge, fined 10 thousand dinars (33 thousand and four hundred dollars) over the case of “misusing the phone”. Added 12/31/2015.

Nadia Vera, activist with #Yo Soy 132, was murdered, on July 31, 2015, along with photojournalist Rubén Espinosa, who had taken a controversial photo of a political figure, Yesenia Quiroz, Mile Virginia Martín, and Alejandra Negrete. Added 12/5/2015.

•Sara al-Drees (ar:سارة الدريس) jailed in Kuwait. TwitterBio at International Prize for Arabic Fiction.  Arabic Wikipedia. Simple English Wikipedia. H/T Jimbo at Jimmy Wales Foundation.  Added 11/27/2015.

•Four individuals in Hong Kong believed disappeared by China: Gui Minhai, Lui Bo, Cheung Jiping, and Lam Wingkei .  They are associated with a bookstore and publishing house that produces books critical of China, and are listed here because of China’s lack of internet access.

Faisal Arefin Dipon, hacked to death in Bangladesh.  WP: link  Added October 31, 2015.

jimbo wikimania venezuelaB

Jimmy Wales shows an endangering photo at Wikimania 2015

Anonymous photographer in Venezuela, per Jimmy Wales’ speech at Wikimania 2015.

This individual had to leave the country after they started receiving threats, also threats to their family. This individual was not politically active, but was only uploading photographs.

Niloy Chakrabarti, whose pen name was Niloy Neel – the fourth Bangladeshi blogger hacked to death by Islamists – was killed August 7, 2015.  Before his death, he had requested police protection. Two suspects have been arrested, one of them out on bail after being charged with attempted murder of blogger Asif Mohiuddin in 2013.

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

This is the original piece (below), as of May 2015. Updates are added at the top.

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Samira Salih al-Nuaimi – lawyer and human rights activist. In 2014 she used Twitter to criticize the Islamic State for destroying mosques and shrines. Kidnapped and tortured for five days, then executed by firing squad.

free raif

Saudi blogger Raif Badawi

Raif Badawi – blogger, created website Free Saudi Liberals, jailed in 2015 for “insulting Islam through electronic channels”.

Waleed Abulkhair – Raif Badawi’s attorney. Imprisoned.

Hamza Kashgari – jailed for Twitter posts about the Prophet’s birthday. Released in 2013.

Iman al-Qahtani – female Saudi journalist who covered the 2013 trial of Saudi dissidents Mohammed Fahad al-Qahtani and Abdullah al-Hamidin. In Saudi Arabia, trials are not public, and women are not allowed in the same meeting room with men (this is prohibited “mingling”). Last message on Twitter, while trying to leave the country, saying she had been subjected to a travel ban. Disappeared in 2013.

Mohammed Fahad al-Qahtani – Saudi dissident (ACPRA). Imprisoned.

Abdullah al-Hamid – Saudi dissident (ACPRA). Imprisoned.

Mohammed al-Bajadi – Saudi dissident (ACPRA). Imprisoned.

Matrouk al-Faleh – Saudi attorney for ACPRA’s  Abdullah al-Hamid and his brother Issa al-Hamid. Imprisoned.

Abdulaziz al-Hussan – Saudi attorney for ACPRA’s Mohammad al-Qahtani and Abdullah al-Hamid. Exiled in Indiana. Twitter.

Ananta Bijoy Das – Bangladesh, secularist blogger. Hacked to death by four attackers in masks.

Avijit Roy – blogger. A Bangladeshi-born US citizen. Stabbed to death.

Washiqur Rahman – Bangladesh, atheist blogger. Hacked to death.

Nguyen Van Hai, Ta Phong Tan, and Phan Thanh Hai – Vietnamese anti-corruption bloggers.  Jailed.

35 bloggers jailed in Vietnam.

A group of Ethiopian bloggers – jailed. Twitter.

Austin Tice – American freelance journalist missing in Syria. Twitter.

Four reporters in Myanmar/Burma – Unity Journal.

Ghazi Beji and Jabeur Mejri – Tunisia. Posting nude cartoons of Mohammed. Beji escaped to Europe, Mejri released from prison in 2014.

Philip Blackwood (New Zealand), U Tun Thurein and U Htut Ko Ko Lwin (Burma) – imprisoned for posting an image of Buddha wearing headphones to promote Buddha Bar. Facebook.

buddha bar arrest

Philip Blackwood arrested in Burma

Missing but for “wrong religion”, rather than internet activity:

Greek Orthodox Bishop Boulos Yazigi
Syriac Orthodox Bishop Yohanna Ibrahim

Try my article tutorial

 [Crossposted from my article tutorial]

userbox tutorial 1Are you ready to write your first article? It is very easy. This tutorial will show you how to write an article using a list of people who received the Medal of Honor.

This project has a barnstar and also a user box for WikiProject Medal of Honor. After you write your first article, you can give yourself a barnstar, if you like.

American Civil War barnstar userbox medal of honor

Steps in writing the article

Sometimes it is easier to just look at an article and copy the format. Here are two examples from Simple Wikipedia: Luke M. Griswold, John Hack If you want to put your article on English Wikipedia, here are two examples from enwiki: :Norman F. Bates, :en:John Brazell.

  1. Choose someone to write the article about. There is a list of red links here. These do not have article on the English WP, so your article will be the one that comes up in a Google search. [More red links here].
  2. Open your sources and find the page with the name of the person. You may want to have your references open in several windows as you write. [Sources are here].
  3. Start the article. You can click on a red link or type the name into the search window. It will tell you there is no article, then give you a link to create a new article. Some people like to start the article on a user page, and move it out when they are finished. Your first edit should be a topic sentence that includes the reason for notability, plus a reference. [See Notability].
  4. Finish the article. Most experienced editors like to make many short edits and save their edits often, so they do not lose their edits. On Simple Wikipedia, an article about a person should have at least two references, a reason for notability, categories, and a defaultsort template. Biographical articles should have categories for: the year the person was born, the year the person died (or [[Category:Living people]] if the person is still alive), the award itself, if such a category exists, the person’s nationality, or the specific place they are from, and anything else of interest about the person: that could be their profession, other accomplishments, etc. [See Categories and Defaultsort].
  5. Add the final touches. Your article will probably have an infobox and a reference section, and maybe a picture. If I can’t find a photo of the person, I like to use a picture of the battleground or place where they earned the medal. You will want to format the references with REFILL. To find pictures, and to have a little fun learning about history, I like to use the “insert media” function of the visual editor, with the name of the battle or geographical location as a search term. [See Infobox, REFILL, and References].
  6. Help yourself to a barnstar and userbox. [See A userbox for you]. There are two different kinds of barnstars on user pages here and here. You can use Template:Barnstar with one of the images below and sign it with four tildes (~~~~) to make the time stamp..
  7. Now that you know how to write an article, you can teach someone else, and give them a barnstar! And there is also a user box for you. The barnstar images are at File:ACW Barnstar.png (American Civil War barnstar, left) and ODM article award.png (Orders, decorations and medals barnstar, right).

ACW_Barnstar            ODM_article_award

Sources

Here are some sources of information for the Medal of Honor:

Reason for notability

Medal of Honor recipients are automatically notable per WP:MIL notability guidelines. Also see discussions here, here, and here. It is best to state the reason for notability (“received the Medal of Honor”) in the first or second sentence.

Categories

The categories you will use for notability are:

  • [[Category:United States Army Medal of Honor recipients]]
  • [[Category:United States Navy Medal of Honor recipients]]
  • [[Category:United States Marine Corps Medal of Honor recipients]]

Since all the recipients are from the U.S., you can use their state instead of their nationality:

  • [[Category:People from Vermont]]

The format for the date of birth is:

  • [[Category:1954 births]]

The format for the year of death category is:

  • [[Category:1915 deaths]]

If you can’t find the year of death, you can use:

  • [[Category:Year of death missing]]

Defaultsort

The format for the defaultsort template is:

  • {{DEFAULTSORT:lastname, firstname}}

References

You can format references by using ref tags like this: https://simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/User:Neotarf/Medal_of_Honor_red_links‎. If you format your sources with ref tags, you can use https://tools.wmflabs.org/refill/ to change them into citations. The format of the reference section is:

== References ==

{{reflist}}

Infobox

The infobox for Medal of Honor is “infobox military person” The instructions are on English Wikipedia here.

List of red links

  • There are lists of red links on these pages, but these lists are for Simple Wikipedia only, and may already have articles at English WP.
  • If you want more names that are red-linked on enwiki, there is another list on English WP at this page It is missing some names from WWI, WWII, Vietnam, Korea, and others, but it is a start.
  • If you want a more difficult project, there is a list of red links of women journalists here. They have all won an award, so they should be notable, but you will have to look for more information about them.

tutorial banner on meta

Review of “Privacy, Anonymity, and Perceived Risk in Open Collaboration”

Summary and comments on “Privacy, Anonymity, and Perceived Risk in Open Collaboration: A Study of Tor Users and Wikipedians”, by Andrea Forte, Rachel Greenstadt, and Nazanin Andalibi. Download PDF.

See also:

For anyone who missed this when it went around in October, it is worth reading in its entirety, although there is a lot of information packed into it. The premise is that there is an element of risk in open-source collaboration–for example, Bassel Khartobil, who disappeared after collaboration on the world heritage site at Palmyra, now destroyed by ISIS, or the anonymous Wikipedian of the year for 2015, who Jimmy Wales named “in pectore” for fear of reprisals. The researchers wanted to understand how these risks are perceived inside open-source movements by the users themselves. They did a series of structured interviews with users from Tor and Wikipedia, then used Atlas.ti software to identify the themes.

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Transcript: Andrea Forte on anonymity

Wikimedia Research Showcase, December 21, 2016, “Editing Encyclopedias and other dangerous jobs” by Andreas Forte

anon01-editing-wwikipedia-and-other-dangerous-jobs[33:00] Andrea Forte: Okay. Hi there.  So, I’m going to be talking about something completely different. This is work that I’ve been doing for the past couple of years with my collaborator Rachel Greenstadt, who’s also on the hangout here and also PhD student Nazanine Andalibi.

So, this is not the title of the paper that we wrote about this study, but as I’ve continued to think about the kind of research that we’re doing on privacy-related issues in Wikipedia, this is how I’ve started to think about it. There’s risk inherent in participating online, and people who are working on seemingly mundane tasks are encountering this risk like anyone else online.

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Timothy Snyder: “Scrub your computer”

Some lessons from history professor Timothy Snyder, a specialist on Eastern Europe and the Holocaust.

* Do not obey in advance. Much of the power of authoritarianism is freely given. In times like these, individuals think ahead about what a more repressive government will want, and then start to do it without being asked. You’ve already done this, haven’t you? Stop. Anticipatory obedience teaches authorities what is possible and accelerates unfreedom.

* Practice corporeal politics. Power wants your body softening in your chair and your emotions dissipating on the screen. Get outside. Put your body in unfamiliar places with unfamiliar people. Make new friends and march with them.

* Make eye contact and small talk. This is not just polite. It is a way to stay in touch with your surroundings, break down unnecessary social barriers, and come to understand whom you should and should not trust. If we enter a culture of denunciation, you will want to know the psychological landscape of your daily life.

dr-seuss-ostrich* Take responsibility for the face of the world. Notice the swastikas and the other signs of hate. Do not look away and do not get used to them. Remove them yourself and set an example for others to do so.

* Give regularly to good causes, if you can. Pick a charity and set up autopay. Then you will know that you have made a free choice that is supporting civil society helping others doing something good.

* Be kind to our language. Avoid pronouncing the phrases everyone else does. Think up your own way of speaking, even if only to convey that thing you think everyone is saying.

* Believe in truth. To abandon facts is to abandon freedom. If nothing is true, then no one can criticize power, because there is no basis upon which to do so. If nothing is true, then all is spectacle. The biggest wallet pays for the most blinding lights.

* Establish a private life. Nastier rulers will use what they know about you to push you around. Scrub your computer of malware. Remember that email is skywriting. Consider using alternative forms of the internet, or simply using it less. Have personal exchanges in person. For the same reason, resolve any legal trouble. Authoritarianism works as a blackmail state, looking for the hook on which to hang you. Try not to have too many hooks.

* Learn from others in other countries. Keep up your friendships abroad, or make new friends abroad. The present difficulties here are an element of a general trend. And no country is going to find a solution by itself. Make sure you and your family have passports.

* Watch out for the paramilitaries. When the men with guns who have always claimed to be against the system start wearing uniforms and marching around with torches and pictures of a Leader, the end is nigh. When the pro-Leader paramilitary and the official police and military intermingle, the game is over.

Katherine Maher on harassment

Katherine Maher speaking on “Privacy and Harassment on the Internet”, MozFest 2016, Ravensbourne, London UK, Oct. 29, 2016.

Privacy and Harassment on the Internet

Moderator: So without further ado, let me welcome to the stage Katherine Maher. She is executive director of the Wikimedia Foundation.
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